New flashcards added for HSC Biology

I have just added a set of 68 flashcards to help students studying and revising for HSC Biology (the final year exams taken by school students in NSW). This set is for the first Biology topic – Maintaining a Balance

Hexokinase image by Thomas Shafee – Own work, CC BY 4.0,

Maintaining a Balance covers enzymes, pH, homeostasis, the nervous system, ectotherms and endotherms, responses of plants to temperature change, the mammalian circulatory system, haemoglobin, xylem and phloem in plants, the respiratory system, the excretory system (particularly kidney structure and function), enantiostasis in estuarine environments and adaptations of Australian plants to minimise water loss.

Nephron Artwork by Holly Fischer – – Urinary Tract Slide 20, 26, CC BY 3.0,

Any student studying these topics in biology would find the flashcard set useful, but particularly those in Year 12 in NSW who are revising for their half-yearly exams, trials or HSCs.


The flashcard set is publicly available on Once you have signed up to Cram, you can download the free app for smartphones and study on the move. Personally, I find the most useful setting is to click on the ‘Memorize’ tab and shuffle the cards. You are then shown only the front of each card. Try to remember the definition and other important points, then click to show the answer, then click on ‘I got it right’ or ‘I got it wrong’. Cards you got wrong will be returned to the pack ready for you to try again.

There are other ways to use the flashcards. There is a test format with various options including matching the word to the definition, or multiple choice, and there are two games you can play with your cards.
I plan to add similar sets for the first topics in HSC Physics and HSC Chemistry. If I have time, I’ll do the Preliminary courses as well.

Please contact me if you have a request for a set, or if you want more words added to this set, or if you disagree with me about the definitions.